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Plymouth in 1850 - Whites Directory

Plymouth pub history

Directory of Pubs in the UK, historical public houses, Taverns, Inns, Beer Houses and Hotels in Devon . The Devon listing uses information from census, Trade Directories and History to add licensees, bar staff, Lodgers and Visitors.


PLYMOUTH, DEVONPORT, and STONEHOUSE, are commonly called "The Three Towns," though they adjoin each other, and form one of the largest sea-ports and principal naval and military stations in England, situated at the south-west corner of Devon. They extend about three miles from east to West, and comprise, with their northern suburbs of Morice Town and Stoke, about 90,000 inhabitants. Plymouth is on the east, Stonehouse in the centre, and Devonport on the west; and their eastern, southern, and western sides, are skirted and deeply indented by the broad, deep, and extensive creeks and harbours in the estuaries of the Tamar and Plym, which meet in Plymouth Sound, and take the names of Catwater, Sutton Pool, Mill Bay, Stonehouse Pool, and Hamoaze; to the latter of which the great naval arsenal of Devonport Dock Yard presents its massive sea wall and numerous docks, slips, &c, in a semi-circular range of more than half a mile, exclusive of the Gun Wharf, and the large Government Steam Yard on the north, opposite Torpoint, to which there is a steam ferry across the estuary of the Tamar. Plymouth Citadel and Mill Bay front that broad arm of the English Channel called the Sound, in which the force of the Atlantic surges is considerably broken by a stupendous breakwater, while the harbours and creeks on either side are shut in. from the violence of ocean storms, on the west by that bold peninsular, range of hills, extending from Cornwall to Mount Edgcumbe, and that long projection of Stonehouse terminating at the Devil's Point, opposite Mount Edgcumbe; and on the east by the bold promontory of Mount Batten, at the entrance to Catwater, the mouth of the river Plym, from which Plymouth has its name. The South Devon Railway extends from Plymouth to Exeter, and connects the three towns with the great railways traversing most ports of the kingdom ; but the line intended to pass hence through Cornwall to Falmouth, &c, is not yet made, though an act for its construction was obtained a few years ago. The ground on which the most populous parts of Plymouth and Stonehouse are built, falls towards the centre, making a sort of hollow, extending from east to west; from which the suburbs rise to a considerable elevation on the north, and to the high ground called the Hoe, overlooking the Sound on the south. The site of Devonport is more elevated, but its face has a gradual southern inclination, and on three sides it falls abruptly to the water. The northern suburbs at Higher Stoke rise much higher, and command delightful views, of the towns, harbours, headlands, and the castellated mansion and sylvan, grounds of Mount Edgcumbe. Devonport, Morice Town, Stoke, and Higher. Stoke, form the PARIBH OF STOKE DAMEREL, which had 33,820 inhabitants in 1841, of whom more than 25,000 were in Devonport, 308 in the Parish Workhouse, 1118 in seven Barracks, 478 in the Convict Hulk, and 155 in Stoke Military Hospital. This parish forms the Municipal Borough of Devonport; but the Parliamentary Borough includes also the PARISH OF EAST STONEHOUSE, which in 1841 had 9712 inhabitants, including 103 persons in the Parish Workhouse, 437 in the Royal Marine Barracks, and 307 in the Royal Naval Hospital. This parish maintains its poor under the provisions of the New Poor Law, and Stoke Damarel Parish is now petitioning to be placed under the control of that act, though neither parish is or wishes to be united with any other for the support of its poor. The BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH comprises the two parishes of St. Andrew and Charles the Martyr, except Pennycross Chapelry in the former, and Compton Gifford tithing in the latter, which are in Roborough Hundred and in Plympton St. Mary Union, as afterwards noticed. The borough parts of these parishes maintain their poor conjointly, under a local act, and their population in 1841 amounted to 30,020 souls, of whom 12,906 were in Charles the Martyr's parish, and 23,064 in St. Andrew's. The latter included 219 persons in the Royal Marine Barracks; 741 in the Citadel Barracks; 332 in Plymouth Workhouse; 79 in the Chatham Hulk: 50 on Drake's Island; and 320 poor Irish waiting for emigration ships. The total population of the two boroughs was 61,213 in 1821; 76,001 in 1881; and 80,032 in 1841, and it may be now estimated at about 90,000 souls. The four parishes in the two Boroughs are in the Archdeaconry of Totnes and Deanery of Plympton, and in the Southern Parliamentary Division of Devon, and in Plymouth Polling and County Court District Stonehouse is in Roborough Hundred and Petty Sessional Division, but the municipal boroughs have separate quarter and petty sessions.
PLYMOUTH, as already stated, is the most eastern of the "three towns," and occupies an important maritime situation at the head of Plymouth Sound, which here extends its expansive waters into the noble harbours of Catwater, Mill Bay, Sutton Pool, Stonehouse Pool, and Hamooze, and receives on the east and west the broad estuaries of the Plym and the Tamar. It is distant 44 miles S.W. of Exeter; 29 miles W. of Dartmouth; 15 miles S. of Tavistock; 5 miles E.S.E. of Saltash ; and 210 miles W.S.W. of London. The Borough increased its population from about 10,000 souls in 1801, to 30,520 in 1841, and has now upwards of 40,000, including the soldiers in barracks, and others attached to the naval and military establishments. It has now about 5500 houses, of which no fewer than 500 were built in 1846-7. Its street arrangements extend about a mile each way, and its site ascends on a bold and broken gradient, back from Mill Bay and Sutton Pool, and the intermediate headland occupied by the Citadel and the Hoe; and is such as to render some of the streets steep, and the entrance from the north-east rather inconvenient; but many of the streets and some of the entrances to the town have been much improved during the last 20 years; and the new buildings in many of the older parts have imparted an air of renovation and beauty to what was before an assemblage of architectural craziness and disorder. There are now in the suburbs many handsome villas and rows of neat houses ; and in the town are several good streets and many commodious public buildings, well stocked shops, and large inns and taverns. The large modern town of Devonport which is separated from Plymouth by that of Stonehouse, was called Plymouth Dock till 1824, as afterwards noticed. In the Saxon era, the site of Plymouth was called Tameorwerth, but after the Conquest, it acquired the name of Sutton, or South Town, in reference to its more ancient neighbour Plympton. In the reign of Edward I., one part of it was called Sutton Prior and the other Sutton Valletort; the north part of the town being on the lands of the Prior of Plympton, and the south part on the estate of the Valletorts. These names were relinquished in the reign of Henry VI. for the more appropriate appellation of Plym-mouth, In the beginning of the reign of Edward II., great disputes arose between the Prior of Plympton and the king, respecting certain rights and immunities', claimed by the former, but always contested by the Crown. At length, by a writ issued from the Exchequer in 1313, a jury was summoned to examine the various claims, and determine the differences between the King and the Prior. By their decision, the Prior, in consideration of a fee-farm rent of £29. 6s. 8d. to be annually paid into the Exchequer for the use of his Majesty, was confirmed in the exercise of various privileges, among which were—the right of granting leases of houses as lord of the fee; of having a manor view of frank-pledge, assize of bread and beer, a ducking stool and pillory, and the fishing of the waters from Catwater to the head of the river Plym. In the reign of Edward III., the manor was given to John de Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, who had many disputes with the Prior, whose claims were again confirmed by a special jury. About this period, Plymouth, which had been much improved under the liberal building leases granted by the Prior, became an object of jealousy to the French, who lauded here and endeavoured to destroy the town by fire, but were repulsed, with the loss of 500 men, by Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, under whose conduct the surrounding gentry and their vassals had associated with celerity. In a second attempt, in the 6th of Henry IV., the French were more successful. Landing at the head of Sutton Pool, near Britonside, they burnt upwards of 6OO houses; but failing in their attempt to destroy the castle and the higher parts of town, they retired to their ships, and proceeded to Dartmouth, where Mons. du Chastel, one of their commanders, and about 400 men, were killed, and 200 others were made prisoners. From the time of this occurrence till the reign of Henry VI., the town dwindled to a mere fishing village, but it was then improved by the] Prior of Plympton, who rebuilt many of the houses at his own expense; and by liberally granting certain privileges, and leases at small fines, occasioned a considerable increase of inhabitants. Trade revived, and the spirit of industry and enterprise being awakened, its capacious harbours were again frequented by merchant and other vessels. About 1438, the inhabitants petitioned Henry VI. for a charter of incorporation, and also that they might have a wall built round the town, for its better defence against the irruption of an enemy. In the following year, the king granted a charter which incorporated the inhabitants by the name of the Mayor and Commonalty of Plymouth and divided the town and borough into four wards, called Old Town, High Vintry, Low Vintry, and Looe street Wards; each to have a Captain and inferior officers, but all to be under the control of the Mayor. In the 4th of Edward IV. a confirmation of the liberties and franchises of Plymouth was granted to the Mayor and Commonalty, on condition of their paying a fee-farm rent of £41 to the Prior of Plympton, and one of ten marks to the Prior of Bath ; and from this period " the lordship of the fee of the manor of Sutton Prior and Valletort (now Plymouth,) was vested in the Corporation of Plymouth, together with the assize of bread and beer, fishery of the waters, view of frank-pledge, tolls of the markets and fairs, and the use of the ducking stool and pillory. In the reign of Elizabeth, a new charter was granted to the borough, through the solicitation of the celebrated Admiral Sir Francis Drake, by which the former charters were confirmed, and the Corporation declared to consist of a mayor, 12 aldermen, 24 common councilmen, and an indefinite number of freemen, with a recorder, town clerk, coroner, and a number of inferior officers. The above named gallant Admiral was born near Tavistock, and was the first Englishman that circumnavigated the globe. Through his skill and perseverance, a stream of water was brought to Plymouth from the sources of the river Meavy in Dartmoor, by a winding channel nearly 24 miles in length. This noble undertaking was entirely executed at his own cost, and the channel has ever since been vested with the Corporation, and still supplies the town water-works. The Corporation claims to be by prescription, and has charters from eleven monarchy beginning with Henry VI. and ending with William III. The borough sent two members to parliament in the 26th and 33rd of Edward. I.; in the 4th and 7th of Edward II., and the 4th of Edward III.; and it has regularly returned two members since the 20th of Henry VI. A market is said to have been established here as early as 1253. In the reign of Edward I., the port had 325 vessels. In 1512, an act of Parliament was passed for fortifying Plymouth and other seaports in the west; and in 1520, Bishop Lacey granted an indulgence to all such persons as should contribute to the fortifications at Plymouth. Leland, who visited it in the time of Henry VIII., says, " the month of the gulph, where the shippes of Plymouth lyith, is waulled on eche side, and chained over in tyme of necessitie; on the south-west side of the mouth is a block-house, and on a rocky hill hard by it is a strong castle quadrate, having on each comer a great round tower. It seemeth to be no very old peace of worke." The little island of St. Nicholas, or Drake's Island, was afterwards strongly fortified, and batteries and block-houses were erected on all sides of the town. On the 20th of July, 1588, part of the English fleet, consisting of 120 sail, under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake, lay at anchor in Plymouth Sound, when the Spanish Armada sailed up the channel, and some of its ships looked into the Sound, where the Spanish Admiral is said to have fixed upon Mount Edgcumbe as his future residence; but not liking the company he saw, his fleet passed out to sea, followed by the English, who overtook the enemy on the following day, kept up a running fight till the 24th, and being joined by another squadron off the Isle of Wight, drove the light to a more general engagement, and continued it at intervals till the 28th, when they assailed the Armada with fire-ships, and in two days saw " the invincible" sea-force totally destroyed or dispersed- To this victorious fleet, Plymouth contributed seven ships and one fly-boat, a quota greater than that supplied by any other port except London. In 1390, twenty-two chests of the Pope's bulls and indulgences, which had been taken from a discomfited party of Spanish invaders in Cornwall, were publicly burnt in Plymouth market-place. In 1390, Plymouth Sound WAS the grand rendezvous of the fleet for the expedition against Cadiz. In 1623, Charles I., with his whole court, a fleet of 120 ships and 6000 troops, remained ten days at Plymouth, and was sumptuously entertained by the Corporation. In the following year, the plague carried off nearly 2000 of the inhabitants.
During the CIVIL WAR of the 17th century, Plymouth was in the hands of the Parliament, who retained it even at the time when most of the important places in the west were in the possession of the royalists. Soon after the commencement of the war, the Earl of Ruthen was appointed governor of the town, and Sir Alex. Carew had the command of the fort and island of St. Nicholas. Various attempts were made by the royalists to gain possession of this important post. Sir Ralph Hopton appeared before it in December, 1642, but was driven from his quarters by the Earl of Stamford. It having been discovered in the September following, that Sir Alex. Carew was on the point of betraying his trust, he was sent prisoner to London, and suffered death on Tower hill. In the early part of September, 1643, Colonel Digby was sent with a considerable force of horse and foot to blockade Plymouth, and took up his quarters at Plymtock. The blockading army had batteries at Oreston and Mount Batten, and a guard at Hoo. Early in October they planned an attack on Mount Stamford, a fort so called from the parliamentary general, the Earl of Stamford. Their guard at Hoo was defeated with much loss on the 8th, about which time Prince Maurice, having captured Dartmouth, advanced with his whole army to besiege Plymouth.. The Prince's head-quarters were at Widey House, and his army was stationed at Plympton, Plymstock, Cawsand, Egg-Bucklaud, Tamerton, &c. On the 5th of November, Mount Stamford was taken by the besiegers, and the fort at Lipson attempted. At this critical period, Col. Wardlaw, the governor, required all the inhabitants to take a vow and protestation to defend the towns of Plymouth and Stonehouse, and the fort and island of St Nicholas, to the uttermost. Ou the 3rd of December, the royalists took a fort at Lory Point, but were soon repulsed by the garrison, who retook the fort. On the 18th of the same mouth, an attempt was made to storm the town, bat the besiegers were repulsed with much loss, and the siege was raised on the 25th. Among the Devonshire officers engaged in this long siege, were the Earl of Marlborough, Sir Thos. Hele, Sir Edmund Fortescue, and Sir P. Courtenay. In April, 1644, Sir Richard Grenville advanced with his forces towards Plymouth, but Col. Martin, then governor of the town, marched out with the greater part of the garrison, and defeated him at St. Budeaux, and took two companies prisoners. About three days after, Sir Richard advanced again, but with no better success; and he was again repulsed before Plymouth in July, when Col. Kerr was made governor. .About this time, Prince Maurice again attempted the capture of Plymouth, but not succeeding, he left Sir Richard Grenville to blockade the town. The Earl of Essex and his army approached Plymouth about the end of the month, and Sir Richard hastily abandoned the blockade. After the surrender of Essex's army in Cornwall, the King came before Plymouth on the 9th of September, 1644, attended by Prince Maurice. On the 11th, Lord Roberts, the governor, was summoned to surrender the town; but on his refusal, it was determined, at a council of war, not to undertake an assault or close siege; and the blockade was again entrusted to Sir Richard. Grenville. The King lodged at Widey House, but left, with the greater part of his army, on the 14th. In January, 1645, Sir Richard Grenville, having a force of 6000 men, assaulted the town, and gained possession of the four great out-works, but was soon afterwards repulsed, with great loss. Mount Stamford was retaken by the garrison on the 18th of February, and Grenville was again defeated on the 24th. In June, the command of the blockade was entrusted to Sir John Berkeley, and in September to General Digby. Colonel Weldon was made governor of Plymouth in October ; but on the 10th of January, 1646, the blockade of Plymouth was finally abandoned. In 1654, a special order was directed from Oliver Cromwell, then Protector, directing that in future all persons who wished to be married must be united at the Guildhall, by the Mayor and Justices for the time being. This occasioned a considerable ferment among all ranks, and a sort of remonstrance; but the order was made peremptory, on the ground that marriage was a civil contract. At this time the borough paid its two representatives for their services in Parliament. In 1670, Charles II. visited Plymouth, and was presented by the Corporation with a purse of 150 broad pieces. In 1683, the borough charter was surrendered to the King, on the requisition of Judge Jefferies, and a new one was granted, at the expense of £417. 19s. which vested the power in ten aldermen and twelve assistants only. This continued in force till 1697, when the old charter was restored.
When the combined fleet was in the Channel, in 1779, and the prison ships were crowded with French and Spanish captives, great apprehensions were entertained for the safety of the place, but a corps of volunteers was raised by Wm. Bastard, Esq., and under their escort the prisoners were marched to Exeter. During the alarms of invasion from France, in 1798, 1803, and 1805, great exertions were made for the defence of Plymouth town and dock, but they were not attempted by the enemy. The town, in connexion with its dock-yard, arsenal, and harbours, was the scene of much bustle throughout the last war with France, and rose so rapidly in importance, that its suburb of Stonehouse became doubled in population, and its western suburb of Devonport, then called Plymouth-Dock, increased, from almost nothing to the bulk of a rival town. Though it might have been expected to suffer reaction, and fall into langour and decline after the return of peace, it has, on the contrary, continued to prosper, and has undergone striking improvements, not only in its architecture and the appearance of domestic comfort, but in the number and character of its literary and charitable institutions. Plymouth is supposed to have had about 10,000 inhabitants in the reign of Edward III., for we find that in 1773, (soon after a great pestilence,) it contained 4837 persons of 14 years of age or upwards, then rated to the poll tax, from which only clergymen and mendicants were exempt. As a sea-port, it has from an early period been one of the principal rendezvous of the British navy. From this port, Edward the Black Prince, after having been detained forty days in Sutton Pool by contrary winds, sailed in 1355, on his successful expedition to France, which was crowned with the glorious victory of Poictiers ; and hero he landed on the first of May, 1357, with the French King, and his son, the Dauphin, as prisoners in his train. In 1470, the Earl of Warwick, with the Duke of Clarence, and the Earls of Pembroke and Oxford, landed hers to excite the revolt which caused the temporary restoration of Henry VI. In 1346, this port furnished 25 ships and 603 mariners for the blockade of Calais. The ill-fated Catherine of Arragon landed here in 1501; and front this port were fitted out the vessels of the Earl of Cumberland, Drake, Gilbert, Carlisle, Grenville, Cavendish, Cook, and Wallis, when they set sail on their respective voyages of discovery. The celebrated Sir Martin Frobisher, not only sailed from this port, but is said to have died here in 1594. The much injured Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have been arrested on his landing here, previous to the enforcing of the fatal but suspended sentence in 1618. In 1633, there was so great a flood here that boats floated into the streets. During the high tide in 1744, property to the amount of £3000 was destroyed in the town, and casks and boats floated about the streets. The old barbican was washed down in 1762. The Princess Amelia was at Plymouth and Mount Edgcumbe in 1766, and in that year the streets began to be paved and lighted. The Duke of Cumberland was here in 1769, the Duke of Gloucester in 1782, and George III. and Queen Charlotte in 1789. Their Majesties were sumptuously entertained at Saltram House, and during their stay there was a naval review and a grand sham fight, in which the fleet formed into two separate lines of battle, one being considered French and the other English. In 1790, two men were gibbeted for murder, near Stoke church. In 1790, the Dutton East Indiaman was wrecked near the Citadel. In 1791 and 1799, the two piers which form the entrance to Sutton Pool were erected. The magnificent Hotel and Theatre were built by the Corporation in 1811, and the colossal Breakwater was commenced in the following year. On the 5th of July, 1315, the Bellerophon dropped anchor in Plymouth Sound, having on board the fallen Emperor Napoleon, who for 20 years had filled the world with his fame, and had pulled down kings and set up princes at his pleasure. He remained here eight days, and thousands of visitors came from all ports, and went off in boats and other vessels to behold the man who had so long been the dread of nations, but was now a fallen enemy, who had surrendered himself to the protection of Great Britain. The curiosity of the crowds which were daily drawn round the Bellerophon was frequently gratified by his condescension in placing himself in the gangways, conspicuous to every beholder, and returning the respect paid him by the shouts of the multitude, by bowing to all around. After waiting the decision of a cabinet council as to his future destiny, which terminated in the island of St. Helena, he was transferred from the Bellerophon to the Northumberland, which ship and her consorts immediately proceeded on their long voyage, and arrived at the island after a tedious passage of ten weeks. The long war, which had cost England so much money and blood, was now terminated; the extensive Prison of War, which had been built in Dartmoor Forest, for the relief of the crowded prison ships of Plymouth, gave up its thousands of captives; and the whole world hailed with delight the return of peace. The Grand Duke Michael of Russia visited Plymouth in 1817, and in the same year an act was obtained for settling disputes between the Corporation and the Board of Ordnance. George IV. was proclaimed here in 1819, in the midst of great rejoicings, and a dinner was given to the poor, but there were greater rejoicings, and the poor were much more liberally entertained at his coronation, in the following year, when upwards of 5000 dined in the market place. The prosperity of the town suffered a severe check during the great panic of 1824, when the Plymouth Bank failed, like many others in the kingdom. During the year there was an extremely high tide; household furniture floated about soma of the streets, and many boats were destroyed. Races were established on Chelson Meadow, in 1826. Plymouth has received and entertained many royal visitors, and was honoured with the presence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in 1843. It has, at various periods, suffered severely from plagues and other maladies, as it did in 1832 and 1849 from cholera. This awful scourge swept off 779 of its inhabitants, from June to September, in 1832 ; and 819 from the 4th of July to the 8th of November, in 1849; and the total number of cases in the former year was 1894, and in the latter 3300. The total number of deaths from cholera in the three towns, from July 4th to October 2nd, 1849, was 717 in Plymouth, 717 in Devonport, and 155 in Stonehouse,—making a total of 1589 during the three months. In the week ending August 16, there were 110 deaths in Devonport alone, and in the following week 112, besides 74 in Plymouth, and 17 in Stonehouse. Some parts of the three towns are very badly drained, but various sanatory improvements have been proposed, and some of them are now being carried out. At present, the drainage of Plymouth empties itself into Sutton Harbour and Millbay, through outlets which are above low water mark, but it has been proposed to collect the drainage into a large culvert, to be carried out into the deep water of the Sound. The South Devon Railway was opened to Laira, on May 6th, 1848 ; and to Plymouth on April 2nd, 1849 ; when the Mayor invited the Chairman and Directors to a dejeuner a la fourchette, at the Royal Hotel, and the arrival of the first train was witnessed by thousands of spectators.
The following general survey of the FORTIFICATIONS, HARBOURS, and NAVAL and MILITARY ESTABLISHMENTS of Pit/mouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport, will be followed by a separate description of each town and its public institutions, charities, etc.
The CITADEL at Plymouth is a large fortification on the south side of the town, occupying that bold headland which extends from the western side of Sutton Pool into the Sound, at the confluence of the Catwater. It was erected on the site of an old fort, by order of Charles II., who inspected it personally in the year 1670. It is built chiefly of limestone and granite, and consists of three regular and two irregular bastions; and the curtains of the former are strengthened by ravelins and hornworks. The east, west, and north sides ore circumscribed by a deep ditch, counterscarp, and covered tray, pallisadoed; and the south side is defended by a lower fort, constructed upon the rocks on the shore, and chiefly intended to defend the Sound. Cannon are mounted both on this fort and on the upper parapets, where there are embrasures for 120 pieces. Two gateways with drawbridges form the entrance from the town; and the second gateway, which opens immediately into the Citadel, displays a sculpture of the royal arms, and other devices. In the centre of the spacious esplanade, where the troops are exercised, (and round which stand the officers' houses, chapel, magazine, armory, and barracks,') is a bronze colossal statue of George II., in the costume of a Roman warrior, wreathed with laurel. From the ramparts, which are nearly three quarters of a mile in circuit, the views are extensive and beautiful.
The HOE is a commanding eminence, bounded on the east by the Citadel, on the south by the Sound, and on the west by Millbay. It is justly styled " the lungs of Plymouth," for here the inhabitants of all grades resort for air and exercise. Great improvements have been made of late years by the formation of carriage drives and public walks, with seats at intervals. The facilities of access from the town to this extensive and delightful promenade have recently been increased by several new avenues. The soldiers stationed in the Citadel frequently exercise on the Hoe; and occasionally may he witnessed a sham fight. The band often enlivens the promenade; and in the central part is an interesting Camera Obscura, and an obelisk which serves as a mark for vessels entering the harbour. The views from this elevated promenade are extensive ; embracing seaward, the Sound, Drake's Island, the Breakwater, the Mew Stone, and in clear weather, Eddystone Lighthouse, fourteen miles distant in the English Channel. On the right, the Cornish coast is seen from Penlee Point to the shelving shores of Cawsand,—and from thence over the nearer and well defined groves and lawns of Mount Edgcumbe; and still more westerly, the town of Devonport, with its column and steeples, and the elevated suburbs of Stoke. On the left is seen the line of the coast from Staddon Point to Mount Batten, guarding the entrance to Catwater; and thence, looking inland over the town, may be seen the extensive woods of Saltram, and the more distant hills of Dartmoor. There is a landing place under the Hoe, whence a boat can be procured for a trip to Drake's Island and the Breakwater.
ST. NICHOLAS' or DRAKE'S ISLAND, is near the middle of Plymouth Sound, and comprises only about three acres, strongly fortified, and connected with the south-western shore by a range of rocks, which is uncovered at low water, and is commonly called the Bridge of Rocks. Even at high water no vessels can pass these rocks, except those of very small burthen. This small island is surrounded with rocks, and has always been the chief defence of the port. It was strongly garrisoned by the Parliamentarians during the civil wars of the 17th century, but was once or twice on the eve of being treacherously surrendered to the Royalists, as already noticed. The garrison is generally formed by a detachment of troops from the Citadel. The landing place is on the north side, where the rock is ascended by a flight of steps through a vaulted passage. A large portion of the area of the island is occupied by the fortifications, and barracks for about 140 soldiers and 40 gunners. The fortifications have been greatly augmented during the last two centuries, and the principal battery was completed in 1846, and mounts 19 pieces of cannon, ranging from 32 to 68 pounders. In addition to its defences, the fort contains furnaces for heating balls red hot. Some authors consider this island as the site of the Tamarweorth of the Saxons, so called from its being " the river island of the Tamar," which here mingles its waters in the Sound, after passing the noble harbour of Hamoaze. Westcote says, the island of St. Nicholas was a place of refuge to divers gentlemen in the insurrection of 1549, when the insurgents plundered and set fire to Plymouth. Before the erection of its fortifications, it had an ancient chapel, which Camden calls St. Michael's. In 1548, the mayor of Plymouth received orders from the Privy Council to convert this chapel into a bulwark.
On the highest point of the promontory on the south side of the entrance to Cutwater, opposite the Citadel, stands MOUNT BATTEN, an ancient circular fort, having no entrance but at a considerable height from the ground, to which access is afforded by a ladder. The interior is arched in the form of a dome, with solid and durable masonry. During the wars between Charles I. and the Parliament, it was the scene of repeated skirmishes and much bloodshed. In addition to the new fortifications lately completed at Bovisand, Picklecombe Point, and Drake's Island, a large fort called the Prince of Wales' Redoubt, was erected in 1849, on the headland called Western King, near the Victualling Yard. These render the defence of the Sound complete.
The BREAKWATER is a stupendous national work, about two miles south of the Citadel, extending about a mile in length across the central part of the Sound, between Cawsand and Bovisand Bays. The broad and often turbulent waters of the Sound are here about three miles broad, and open into the English Channel about two miles further to the south. From the frequent occurrence of storms from the south-west, which endangered vessels at anchor, it was deemed an object of great importance to make the Sound a safe roadstead; consequently, in 1811, Government determined on the adoption of a plan submitted to them by Messrs. Kennie and Whidbey, of forming this gigantic Breakwater. For its construction they purchased, for .£'10,000, a mass of limestone rock at Oreston, covering 25 acres. The first stone (a vast block,) was deposited Aug. 12th, 1812; and in the following March, the Breakwater had so far advanced, that parts of its irregular surface were seen above low water. In June, 1847, no less than 3,620,440 tons of limestone had been used in this great work, though, 70 yards of the eastern arm, requiring 50,000 tons more, were then unfinished. In addition to this enormous bulk, 2,512,690 cubic feet of granite and other stone were used in the paving and facings. The total cost of the Breakwater was about £1,500,000. The centre part is a straight line, extending one thousand yards, and at each end is an arm or kant, 350 yards long, projecting towards the shore at an angle of 120 degrees; but the low water line extends 70 yards further. The top is 45 feet broad, and is at the ends two feet, and in the centre three feet above the high water of spring tides. Above 500 yards of the centre rests upon shovel rocks and shoals, and the rest stretches out into deeper water, leaving a passage for vessels 1000 yards wide on the west, and another 1000 yards wide on the east. The whole work has a vertical height of from 50 to 80 feet, from the base to the top. In addition to the outer slope is an extensive berne, or foreshore, 30 feet wide at the extremity of the east wing, 50 feet wide in the centre, and 70 feet wide at the extremity of the west wing. This foreshore rises from the base of the slope to about five feet above the low water line; and serves to break the force of the waves before they strike the main body of the work, and to prevent their recoil from undermining the slopes of the base, and making a consequent breach in the general structure. The western end of the Breakwater is strengthened by facings of masonry, and finished off in a circular form, to serve as the foundation of a Light House, which was completed in 1843, and rises 68 feet above the platform. It is crowned by a lantern eight feet high, supported by gun-metal pilasters, and provided with four refractors, and five tiers containing 118 mirrors. The light can be seen at the distance of eight miles, except in foggy weather, when a bell is struck a certain number of times every minute, by clock machinery. A floating light had been stationed near the same spot since 1813, but was often sent adrift from its moorings. In January, 1817, and November, 1824, the Breakwater (then unfinished,) was much injured by violent storms; particularly in the latter year, when a most tremendous hurricane, acting on an unusually high tide, made vast breaches through this barrier; yet even that tempest demonstrated its great utility, for had not the Breakwater existed, it was supposed that all the ships in the Catwater would have been wrecked, and many of the buildings near the shore swept into the ocean. That it has answered the expectations of its warmest advocates, is evinced by the security it has afforded to ships at anchor,—above 200 sail of vessels having taken refuge within it at one time. On the shore of Bovisand, east of the Breakwater, is a large reservoir of water, for supplying vessels free of charge, which is done by means of iron pipes, at the landing place.
EDDYSTONE LIGHT HOUSE is under the control of the Customs' establishment at Plymouth, though distant 14 miles in the Channel, opposite the Sound. This celebrated structure stands upon one of a large cluster of rocks, stretching north and south to the length of about 100 fathoms. The particular form and position of these rocks tend greatly to augment the force of the sea; and previous to the erection of the lighthouse, many fatal Accidents happened upon them. Though most important to the port of Plymouth, this lighthouse is highly beneficial to all vessels traversing the English Channel. In 1696, the first attempt to erect a lighthouse on the principal rock, was accomplished by Mr. Henry Winstanley, of Essex, who completed it in three years ; but this bold and unfortunate mechanic, perished amidst the ruins of his edifice, in the tremendous storm of November, 1703. Three years after, Mr. Rudyerd, of London, began to erect another lighthouse on the same spot, of stone and timber, and completed it in 1709. This structure, after braving the storms of the ocean for 40 yean, was destroyed by fire in 1755. The present lighthouse was erected by that celebrated architect the late Mr. Smeaton, and exhibits a striking triumph of art and ingenuity. It was commenced in 1757, and finished in 1759. With the exception of the lantern, which is of cast iron and copper, the building is entirely of stone, the outside being of granite, and the floors vaulted. It is a circular building, and the diameter of the base is 20 feet, and that of the top 15 feet. The stone work rises 70 feet to the octagonal lantern, which rises 21 feet higher. The stones average a ton weight each, and those on the same level are dove-tailed together, and the successive courses are attached to each other, by means of square blocks of marble, which project one-half of their solidity into the course below, and the other half into the course above. By this means, so firm a bond is maintained, both horizontally and vertically, that the building may be regarded as one entire and perfect substance. Three men are now stationed here, and they are provided with food and other necessaries by a boat appointed for that purpose; but they are always stocked with salt provisions, to guard against the possibility of want, as in winter it sometimes happens that the boats cannot approach for many weeks together.
CATWATER HARBOUR, on the south-east side of Plymouth, is the grand outlet, through which the river Plym falls into the Sound, between the Citadel and Mount Batten. It is capable of receiving a thousand sail of merchant ships, but though protected by high hills, ships have sometimes been wrecked in it, as was the case in the tremendous gales of 1824 and 1828, when 20 vessels were stranded on its rocky shores in the former, and 15 in the latter year. Above Catwater, the estuary of the Plym, assumes a lake-like expanse, called the Laira or Lary, and skirted by the groves of Saltram,—the splendid seat of the Earl of Morley, whose predecessor erected at his own expense, the Laira Bridge, an elegant structure, consisting of five elliptical arches of cast iron, springing from abutments and piers of stone. The first stone was laid in 1824, and the bridge was finished in 1827. The centre arch is 100 feet span, and rises 14 ½ feet above high water mark; and the other arches are two of them 95 and two 81 feet each in span. The roadway is 24 feet wide within the railings, and 500 feet in length.
SUTTON POOL HARBOUR is in the south-eastern part of Plymouth, and is nearly surrounded by the town. The entrance from Catwater is about 90 feet in width, between two large Piers, (called the Barbican,) that were erected by means of parliamentary grants, in 1791 and 1799. This spacious harbour belongs to the Duchy of Cornwall, but is held on lease by the Sutton Harbour Improvement Company, who, during the last four years, have expended large sums in cleansing and deepening it, and in erecting sea-walls, quays, &c. When the contemplated improvements are finished, it will be one of the finest tidal harbours in the kingdom. The railway from Dartmoor granite works terminates at its south-eastern angle, and it is intended to have a communication with the South Devon Railway. New quays, wharfs, cranes, railway slips, storehouses, &c, have been erected by the spirited Company; and a large dredging machine is employed in excavating the muddy bottom, formerly left bare at low water. On the West Barbican pier-head is a fixed light, 29 feet above high water mark.
MILL BAY is larger than Sutton Pool, extending about 500 yards inwards from the Pier, between Plymouth and Stonehouse, and being about the same breadth in its widest parts. Mill Bay Pier extends about 500 feet across the eastern side of the Bay, from the vicinity of the extensive limestone and marble quarries on the West Hoe, belonging to Thos. Gill, Esq., who, in 1840, obtained an act of parliament for the erection of the Pier, which he completed at the cost of above £27,000. Vessels of 3000 tons burthen may lie safely close to this fine Pier, in the inner harbour, at low water. The Great Western Dock Company have lately purchased this pier and the Harbour, and are now constructing at the head of the Bay the GREAT WESTERN DOCKS, which will have a sufficient depth of water, and gates wide enough, for the reception of large steam and sailing vessels. The largest of these docks is now in rapid progress, and will occupy eleven acres, and be 22 feet deep, with a lock entrance for vessels of about 1000 tons, and a gate wide enough for the admission of the largest ships. These extensive docks will be finished in about two years; and along their quays and wharfs will be railways communicating with the adjacent station of the South Devon Railway. Between the docks and the pier there will still be spacious outer harbour, capable of containing a great number of vessels of all classes. It is anticipated that, after the docks are finished, and the other improvements completed, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Packets will start hence, instead of from Southampton; and no doubt merchants trading to India, will avail themselves of the great facilities afforded by the docks and railway, and make this the point of debarkation and embarkation, especially for mail bags and passengers;—as much time would be thus saved, and the dangers of the Channel, in a passage sometimes of a week's duration, avoided. On the West Hoe, near Mill Bay Pier, are about to be built a range of large and handsome houses, which will have tasteful grounds, commanding delightful views over the Sound and the adjacent harbours, Mount Edgcumbe, etc. Mill Bay is guarded by several forts and batteries; and on the eastern side of it is the Government Prison, which was rebuilt about 25 years ago, on the site of the old Prison of War, but is now used chiefly as a depot for military stores, and has a spacious yard and barracks attached.
HAMOAZE, the great western harbour of the three towns, is completely land-locked, and extends northward from Mount Edgcumbe to Saltash, a distance of four miles. It is in some places about a mile broad, and has a number of pools and creeks for the reception of shipping, such as Stonehouse Pool, Barnpool, Millbrook Lake, Keyham Lake, etc. Stonehonse Pool branches out of it, between Stonehonse and Devonport, and the tides run up it from the pier called the Admiral's Hard, through Stonehonse Lake and Mill Pool, a distance of 1 ½ mile. Hamoaze is the estuary of the river Tamar, and falls into the Sound below Devonport. Here are the public establishments and station for the Royal Navy; and a great number of ships of war, of all classes, may at all times be seen lying in ordinary, secured by immense chains, and covered with wooden roofs to protect them from the weather. These floating bulwarks, being stripped of their rigging, and having nothing standing but their lower masts, have a singular, though magnificent, appearance. The depth of this extensive estuary, where a great part of the British navy lies moored in " stern repose," is above 18 fathoms at high Water, and 15 at low water. In this harbour, upwards of one hundred sail of the line, besides frigates and small vessels, may safely ride at anchor in severe gales.
DEVONPORT DOCK YARD, one of the largest naval establishments in the kingdom, presents to the broad harbour of Hamoaze, a semi-circular wharf wall, more than 1100 yards in length. This Dock Yard, now one of the finest in Europe, is believed to have been commenced soon after the glorious Revolution of 1688, under the auspices of William III. The town of Devonport, to which the Dock Yard gave rise, was called Plymouth Dock till 1824, as afterwards noticed ; and in official documents the arsenal retained the name of " Plymouth Yard" till the visit of her Majesty and Prince Albert, in September, 1843, when the Queen commanded that in future it should be styled in all documents Devonport Dock Yard. It was commenced on a comparatively small scale, and for a long period the officers and artizans resided at Plymouth, there being then no houses at Devonport. In 1728, government obtained from Sir Wm. Morice, a long lease of 40A. of land, which was then occupied by the Dock Yard, and had been previously rented from year to year. The extent of the arsenal was then 54 acres, and the spot on which the great fire occurred in 1840, appears to have been the original site. William III. constructed the basin and two of the naval docks, and two others were made in 1708. Since then many extensions and improvements have taken place, and this extensive Dock Yard now comprises 70 ½ acres, and gives employment to from 1400 to 1600 men, as shipwrights, caulkers, joiners, smiths, sawyers, rope-makers, painters, riggers, sail-makers, labourers, etc., besides a large number of apprentices. In time of war, its establishment would be augmented to about 4000. Its peace establishment has recently been reduced, to satisfy the loud cry which has lately been raised for the reduction of taxes and national expenditure ; and several new regulations have been established by the Admiralty for increasing the efficiency of this and other naval yards, at a less cost than formerly. The Dock Yard is separated from the town of Devonport by Dockwall street, and they are encompassed on the land sides by a strongly fortified wall 12 feet high. Government own a large space of land on both sides of this long line of fortifications. On entering the Dock Yard from the gates at the end of Fore street, we are struck by the absence of all appearance of labour; but glancing the eye in the vista are perceived long ranges of buildings uniting strength with neatness. Passing hence in a gradual descent to the water's edge, we soon immerge into the bustle of several hundred mechanics. On the right of the entrance is the residence of the director of police; and the next object is the spacious and handsome Chapel, which was built in 1816-17, on the site of the old one, which was erected in 1700. The interior is handsomely fitted up and has a good organ; and in the tower are six musical bells. The Rev. John Briggs is the chaplain, and has a yearly salary of £400. Near the chapel are two reservoirs, from which the establishment is supplied with pure water. Passing from the guard-house and pay office, down a fine avenue, we arrive at the residences of the principal officers, in the centre of which is the mansion of the Admiral Superintendent, approached by two flights of steps. We next arrive at the edge of a terrace or shelf, from whence flights of steps descend into the busy area below. Here almost the whole of the arsenal, before unseen, bursts into view. The noble ships in progress of building, and under repair,—the magnificent storehouses and workshops,—the gigantic sheds protecting the docks; and the neatness and order everywhere apparent, excite the admiration of the stranger. From this point some conception of the vastness of the establishment may be formed. In the engine house and saw-mills it is curious to observe the power of steam, applied at the same moment to the most trifling as well as the most important operations. At one spot, we see it directed to the cutting of wedges ; at others cutting screws, drilling, planing, punching, turning grind-stones, and pumping the water out of the superb dock with inexpressible ease. A large fan is driven by it, and air drains, made under the floor of the smithery, convey the blasts to the fires, and thereby supersede the use of bellows. A shaft is carried underground to the saw mills, where immense blocks of wood are changed into delicate planks ; and under the steps is a curious machine, called "Jim Crow," for making halyards for vessels of war. In one of the smitheries is one of Nasmith's patent steam tilt hammers, the power of which can easily be increased or diminished to the largest or smallest requirements. The portion of the yard, occupied by locksmiths, carvers, plumbers, masons, &c, is near this smithery. Proceeding to the north jetty, we view the noble Hamooze, with its bosom dotted with men of war of various ratings, and in different states of equipment. The new north dock next claims attention. It is sufficiently capacious for building or repairing the largest man of war, and was first opened in 1780. The next are the union, double, and south or basin docks. This spot is memorable as the scene of the great fire, on September 27th, 1840, when upwards of £80,000 worth of public property was destroyed. On the left are two ranges of buildings, containing the joiners' and carpenters' shops, &c, surmounted by a conspicuous clock, with four dials. We next approach a massive storehouse, which, together with the sail-loft, forms a square of nearly 400 feet, and is built entirely of stone and iron. Near this is the large new basin, which has been lately finished and affords space lo float ten first rate men of war, exclusive of its two graving clocks. On the anchor wharf are anchors of all sizes, some weighing 96 cwt. Adjoining the jetty is a graving slip, and near it is a weigh bridge for weighing heavy articles. A swivel bridge crosses the canal, which runs into the heart of the yard, and is called the " Camber ;" and near it is another smithery, where the largest anchors are made, one of which occupies 36 men ten days. Just beyond are three slips, in which the largest men of war are built. The slips for building frigates and smaller craft are at a short distance. The boat and mast ponds and houses are extensive, and near them are the two large rope houses, each 1300 feet long, and built entirely of stone and iron. Cables, 23 inches in circumference, and cordage for the navy are manufactured here. There is a pleasant little rocky eminence near the mast house, called the King's hill, or Bunker's hill. George III., on his visit to this yard, having been so pleased with the charming prospect seen from this rock, expressed a wish that it might be excepted from the general excavation to which the surrounding site was subjected. The sides of this rock are thickly covered with ivy and evergreens, and its summit is crowned by a beautiful temple, erected in 1822, in memory of the visit of George III. The docks, slips, canals, basins, &c., are mostly hewn out of the slate rock, and lined with Portland stone. The extent of the excavations and masonry may be judged of by the following dimensions of the "New North Dock," excavated from the solid rock,—length, 254 feet 2 inches,—extreme breadth, 97 feet—depth, 27 feet 8 inches. The great diversity of employments, ingenuity, and manual activity, exhibited in the various departments of this Dock Yard, presents a very interesting spectacle, and perhaps no sight is better calculated to enable a comprehensive mind to form a proper estimate of the powers of continued labour than the gradual growth of a few rude pieces of timber into the majestic structure that encounters the wind and waves, and forms the most complete security against invasion that Great Britain can possess.
The GUN WHARF is situated north of the Dock Yard, and occupies nearly five acres, fronting Homoaze harbour, and enclosed by a high wall. It was planned about a century ago. After passing from the entrance through a fine avenue of trees, the houses, &c, of the officers are seen on the left. At the foot of a flight of steps are the armory and storehouses. In the former immense piles of muskets, pistols, cutlasses, &c, are deposited in chests ; and others are arranged about the walls in the forms of stars, circles, fans, and crescents. Near the storehouses are buildings appropriated as depositories for gun-carriages, and implements of the field. On the wharfs and around, are a great number of cannon, of different caliber, which belong to the vessels of war moored in the harbour, and also numerous piles of shot, of every size. At Morice Town, north of Gun Wharf, is the new GOVERNMENT STEAM YARD, skirted on the west by Hamoaze harbour, and on the north by Keyham Lake, and occupying about 70 acres. It has two extensive basins, entered from the estuary by locks of such magnitude that the largest ships may enter three hours before high water. The south lock is so constructed as to be converted into a dry dock, when a line of battle ship is brought in to have her bottom examined or cleansed. From the eastern side of the south basin three large dry docks are projected, of such dimensions as to be capable of accommodating the largest steamers afloat. The north is the fitting basin, and east of it are ranged die storehouses, factories, foundries, smitheries, &c. This yard has been some years in progress, and is not yet completed. It will cost about £2,000,000, and there have been employed in its formation upwards of 1200 men, 10O horses, and 70 boats. South of it is Moon's Cove and Ship Canal, and between the latter and Gun Wharf, is New Passage, where the STEAM FLOATING BRIDGE, a ponderous vessel, conveys passengers, carriages, etc, to and from Torpoint, every half hour. The stage coaches are taken across the broad estuary, without even unhorsing, or the coachmen and guards alighting.
Devonport is the seat of the military and naval government of the port, the former being removed here from the Citadel at Plymouth in 1725. The GOVERNMENT HOUSE, comprising the private residence and military offices of the Lieutenant Governor of the garrison; and the ADMIRAL'S HOUSE, the residence for the Port Admiral, and offices belonging to his department ; are pleasantly situated on the south-east side of the town, upon the fine, open, and spacious paradecalled MOUNT WISE, overlooking the harbour of Hamoaze. Here are held the military parades and inspections; and on rejoicing days the whole disposable force of the three towns is reviewed, and the parade becomes a scene of great gaiety. At the east end stands, mounted, a brass cannon of immense size, taken from the Turks, in the Dardanelles. From the ramparts and the several batteries, (mounted with heavy artillery,) delightful views are seen; and on the summit of the hill, is the Semaphore, or Telegraph Station, where signals are made with the admiral of all ships that are passing up and down the channel within sight of the const. The BARRACKS on the east side of Devonport, but within the lines, form four large squares, called George, Cumberland, Ligonier and Frederick Squares, and have room for 2000 soldiers. The Laboratory at Mount Wise is now used as barracks.
The ROYAL WILLIAM VICTUALLING YARD occupies the north side of that large headland at Storehouse, which projects into the Sound and the spacious harbour of Hamoaze. This magnificent national establishment was commenced in I826, and completed in 1833, from the designs of Sir John Bennie, at the cost of £l,500,000. The entire premises occupy about 13 acres of land, of which nearly half was recovered from the sea; the material for that purpose being obtained from the excavations made in levelling and preparing the remainder of the site. The entrance gateway is in the Graeco Roman style, and wholly of finely wrought granite. The front exhibits a grand central arch and two side entrances ; and on the former is placed a statue of William IV., of Portland stone, 13 ½ feet in height. It is a most exquisite piece of sculpture, and a good likeness. The ox's heads and anchors over the side entrances, were carved by a rustic sculptor. The general facing of the extensive buildings is of wrought limestone ; but the plinths, dressings, cornices, &c, in the principal fronts, are of granite. The doors and window frames are of cast iron, as are the internal columns of all the warehouses, and the girders, lintels, &c. of the Cooperage. The Long Store, Melville Store, and the Cooperage are roofed with iron, copper, and slate. On the right of the entrance is a fine range of buildings, 250 feet by 200, wherein the bread for the navy is prepared by means of a steam engine, of 40 horse power, and 25 pairs of mill-stones, capable of grinding 1000 bushels of corn in the short space of ten hours. The flour is passed from the mill to the story below, where it is kneaded, and the dough cut into biscuits, by curiously contrived machinery. In one part of the buildings appropriated for the preparation of butchers' meat, is the slaughter house, where 70 or 80 bead of cattle can be despatched at once. The next buildings, on the left, are called the Melville Quadrangle, and are 240 feet square, with a lofty granite archway, surmounted by a clock. The interior contains spacious apartments for the various stores connected with victualling the navy. In front is a large basin, with an entrance for vessels from the harbour, and around it are spacious quays, built of granite. The next building is the Brewhouse, with a steam-engine of 40 horse power; but owing to the discontinuance of serving beer to the navy, it has remained useless. Beyond this is the extensive Cooperage, floored with four inch York paving. At a short distance are the Clarence Stores, 340 feet long and 50 broad. In front of these stores is a noble wharf, extending 500 feet, and forming a delightful promenade on the margin of the broad waters of Hamoaze, near their confluence with the Sound. The officers' residences are to the right of the entrance. About 150 men are employed here, but in time of war the number would be greatly augmented. The DEVIL'S POINT is the high ground behind the Victualling Yard, where there is a Reservoir, holding 7000 tuns of water, and a Battery, from which the royal marine artillery practise the firing of heavy shot at a flag fixed on a buoy in the Sound. The ROYAL MARINE BARRACKS front Mill Bay and the Great Western Docks, and generally contain about 700 men, and an excellent band.
The ROYAL NAVAL HOSPITAL is at Stonehouse, opposite Stonehouse Lake, and occupies about 24 acres, including a verdant lawn of 18 acres. It was opened in 1762 for the reception of sick and wounded seamen and marines, of whom it received no fewer than 48,452 from 1800 to 1814, a great portion of whom were returned to the service as effective men. The buildings range in the form of a square, and will accommodate 1200 patients. The government of the hospital is entrusted to a captain in the navy, and the same officer is superintendent of the Victualling Yard. Every attention is paid to the patients, and the establishment displays much regularity and cleanliness.
The ROYAL MILITARY HOSPITAL is on the opposite side of Stonehouse Lake, near Stoke Church, and was built in 1797. The south front is of grey marble, and has a very imposing appearance, being of considerable length, and having an arcade of 41 arches, forming a fine promenade for the sick. It will accommodate 500 patients, and has extensive grounds enclosed by a lofty wall. The BLOCKHOUSE, at Higher Stoke, is a square fortification, erected in the reign of George II., and intended as a redoubt for the defence of the town and harbour. The views from its ramparts are extensive and beautiful, embracing not only the three towns and their harbours, but a large portion of the adjacent country, in the picturesque vales of the riven Tamar and St. Germans or Lynher.
The PORT OF PLYMOUTH extends to all the harbours, rivers, and creeks between Looe on the west, and the river Yealm on the east; but its Pilotage district extends eastward as far as Start Point, though no master of a vessel is compelled to take a pilot, except going into or coming out of the ports within a line drawn from Rame-Head to the Mewstone. During the late long protracted war, Plymouth was content with its resources as a great naval and military station, and paid but little attention to Trade and Commerce with the colonies of foreign countries. Its merchants, at this period, were mostly agents for London, Liverpool, and Bristol houses, and purchased and transported under their directions the vast quantities of prize goods brought here for sale. Those who withstood the shock caused by the change from warlike to peaceable occupations, gradually extended their connexions with foreign nations and our distant colonial possessions ; and the shipping and commerce of the port have been rapidly increasing during the last 20 years. A considerable trade is now carried on with America, the Mediterranean, the West Indies, the Baltic, &c.; and here are now consuls or vice consuls for about 30 different nations. The port has also an extensive coasting trade with London, Bristol, Newport, Exeter, Newcastle, &c, and has a number of fine Steam Ships, which sail once or twice a week with goods and passengers to London, Southampton, Portsmouth, Guernsey, Jersey, Dublin, Cork, Torquay, &c. There is now no port in the English Channel, between London and Land's-End, where so great an amount of business is done as at Plymouth, and where so much shipping is employed. The number of vessels which entered the port with cargoes in 1848, was 4106, and their amount of tonnage 309,798. Of the vessels, 538 were from foreign parts, 175 from Ireland, and 3393 were coasters. The number which cleared out in the same year was 2348, including 105 to foreign parts, 323 in ballast, 236 to Ireland; 1585 coasting vessels, and 80 emigrant ships; the latter taking out 8505 passengers. Many vessels make several voyages in the year, and each voyage is counted as a separate vessel in the above statement. The number of vessels registered here in 1849 was 433, of the aggregate amount of 30,657 tons. The gross amount of custom's duty, received here, was £100,070, in 1838; £135,930, in 1841; above £116,000 in 1848; and £121,750 in 1849. Here are large bonded warehouses for all sorts of foreign produce. The chief exports are copper and lead ores, manganese, granite, limestone, clay, fish, &c. Though the coasting trade of Plymouth is more important than its foreign trade, the latter comprises upwards of 50,000 tons annually, consisting chiefly of wine, fruit, corn, timber, &c. The port has several fine vessels engaged in the fruit trade, and receives some of the first importations of early fruits from Denia, Valencia, Zante, &c. Great quantities of coal and culm are imported here for the consumption of the three towns, and the places on or near the navigable rivers, Tamar, Flym, and Lynher. Of late years, Plymouth has become celebrated as a port for emigration to Australia, and other parts of the world. In 1849, no fewer than 130 migrant ships left the harbour, with 15,895 passengers, of which 109 ships, with 14,118 passengers, went to Australia; 10 ships, with 1171 passengers, to Canada; and the rest went to the Cape of Good Hope, the United States, Port Natal, and San Francisco. In 1847, the number of emigrants who left here in 20 vessels, was 1230; but in the following year, 8505 left, in 88 ships; so that no fewer than 25,730 have sailed from Plymouth during the last three years. Here are several respectable government and general emigration agents, and the vessels are generally of the "best description, lying in Cutwater or the Sound, always afloat, and sailing quickly and punctually. Plymouth has also about 80 fishing vessels, of which about 60 are Trawlers, which employ about five men and boys each, and go out to the fishing ground 10 or 12 miles off the coast, where they fish with nets that sweep the bottom of the sea. The others are smaller craft, called Hooking and Seine Boats, and usually carry two men and a boy each. When the mackerel and pilchard seasons arrive, there are large accessions to the Plymouth boats from Brighton, Hastings, Yarmouth, Rye, Cornwall, &c, and in some seasons there are from 200 to 300 boats on the fishing stations. Turbot, soles, brill, cod, hake, mullet, and a great variety of other fish are caught here ; and salmon, trout, plaice, &c, in the Tamar and other rivers. Fish is not cured here to any large extent, but great quantities are sent in a fresh state by rails, (as well as by fast sailing cutters to Southampton, and thence by rails,) to London, Bath, Bristol, Manchester, and other markets. The mackerel fishery is sometimes amazingly prolific, as many as 500,000 fish having been taken, and brought into Plymouth in one day, and sold wholesale for about £2000, or at 8s, per 120. In the first twelve days of March, 1850, near 400 tons of mackerel left here by rails, and one train took as many as 120,000 of these delicious fish to London, &c. An association of fish speculators call themselves the “Hong-Kong Company," and another company has recently formed an oyster bed in Stonehouse Pool, and supplied it with fish and spat of a superior quality from Helford river, Cornwall. The Channel has lately been infested with a species of large fish, called by the fishermen Blower Whales, from 20 to 30 feet long, and making a loud and disagreeable noise. One of these whales got entangled in the nets of a lugger which had all her gear out, and took the boat in tow at such a furious rate through the sea, that the poor fishermen were compelled to cut the rope, and let the monster go with all their nets, worth £90. This occurred about 12 miles S.W. of Bolt Head. As already noticed, the three towns still derive a large portion of their prosperity from the naval and military establishments; and it is expected that Plymouth will be made a mail-packet station after the completion of the Great Western Docks, near the terminus of the South Devon Railway. The South Devon Shipping Company has a large number of shareholders, who receive about £10 per share annually.
The CUSTOM HOUSE is situated on the Parade, near Sutton-Pool, and is a large and handsome structure, built of granite, in 1819-20, at the cost of £8000, in lieu of the old age, which was small and inconvenient. It contains a long room, 52 feet by 26 and all other necessary offices for the business.
The INLAND REVENUE OFFICE (late Excise) is in Dalte street.
The BOROUGH OF PLYMOUTH comprises the Island of St. Nicholas, and the two parishes of St. Andrew and King Charles the Martyr, except their out-townships of Pennycross and Compton-Giflord. Its population, charters, and general history are shewn at preceding pages. Under the Municipal Reform Act of 1835, the Town Council consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 30 councillors, with a recorder, town clerk, and other officers; and the borough is divided into six wards, and has a commission of the peace, a court of quarter sessions, etc. The paving, lighting, and improvements of the town, and the management of the poor, are vested in separate commissioners, or guardians, under acts of Parliament obtained for those purposes; and the three towns were associated under a local act for the recovery of debts under £5, but the latter has now given place to the new county court. An act for improving the town was obtained in the 51st of George III., and was amended in the 5th of George IV., by "An Act for the better paving, lighting, cleansing, watching, and improving the Town and Borough of Plymouth, and for regulating the police, and removing and preventing nuisances and annoyances therein." The municipal act of 1835, vested the police with the Corporation. In 1849, the Commissioners of Improvement received from rates £6860, out of which they expended .£2541 in improvements; £1958 in paving and draining; £1443 in lighting; £173 in watering the streets ; and £170 in salaries; and paid £600 as interest on debt. In 1833, the entire revenue of the Corporation amounted to about £6782, and their expenditure to £7510, with a debt of £39,000. Their income in 1840 was £10,533, of which £5440 arose from rents, £1157 from tolls and dues, £2077 from borough and watch rates, and £910 from the sale of property. Their expenditure in the same year was £9904, of which £919 was for salaries to municipal officers, £1120 for salaries of police and constables, £1853 for public works, repairs, &c. ; £428 for prosecutions, administration of justice, &c.; £155 for charities, £110 for gaol expenses, and £4194 for payments of interest and principal on the borough debt, which has since been considerably reduced. As lords of the manor, the Corporation own the tolls and dues of the market and fairs, now let for £3030 per annum, on lease for three years. The rateable property of the borough has recently been assessed at the annual value of £85,393, viz., £50,200 in St. Andrew's, and £29,193 in the parish of Charles. A rate of 6d. in the pound on this rental yields £2134, which is about the sum usually required for the support of the police force. The new BOROUGH PRISONS, which were completed in 1849, are pleasantly situated on the north-east side of the town, and cost about £13,500, of which about £3500 was derived from the freeman's, or prison fund, and £10,000 was borrowed, chiefly from the Exchequer Loan Commissioners. They are handsomely built of blue limestone, relieved by Caen-stone dressings, and the sashes are all of cast iron, glazed with plate glass a quarter of an inch thick. They are generally in the Italian style, and the lofty boundary wall encloses about three acres, divided into airing grounds, &o. The governor's house and porter's lodge are on each side of the entrance The prisons are in the centre of the ground, and are disposed in three large wings, comprising the governor's offices, apartments for the matron, a chapel and surgery, visiting cells, convalescent rooms, a bath room, and cells for 60 prisoners, including six for male and three for female debtors, for whom there are comfortable day rooms and airing grounds. There are four solitary cells, so constructed as to admit air, but no light; and there are 24 airing grounds, radiating from a common centre, and each to be occupied by only one prisoner at a time, whilst an officer is so placed as to be able to see into all the yards,—the arrangements having been so made as to carry out the separate system, in all its completeness, both in the prisons and the chapel. The GUILDHALL, in Whimple street, was built in 1800, at the cost of .£7000, on the site of the old one, which had been erected in 1606. It is an incommodious and inelegant building, containing A justice hall, several apartments for the transaction of corporation affairs, the police station, and several cells, &c, which served as the borough prison till the recent completion of the new prisons. The erection of a new Town Hall, on a scale adequate to the present wants of the town and borough, is in contemplation. In the present hall is a fine portrait of George IV., when Prince Regent. Here are held the Quarter and Petty Sessions of the borough ; but the Bankruptcy Court, lately established here, is held at the Hall of Commerce; and the County Court, for Plymouth District, is to be held in the new Town Hall, &c, now erecting at Stonehouse, but is now held in the Guildhall, for the three towns, every Tuesday, and also every alternate Wednesday. Mr. Wm Jacobson is clerk of the latter court, and Mr. J. H. Williams, high bailiff. The office is at Eldad place. The borough sent members to Parliament as early as the reign of Edward I., and has sent two regularly since its incorporation in the 18th of Henry VI. For a long period, Plymouth was considered as an Admiralty Borough, and was generally represented by Lords of the Admiralty, or by Admirals; but when the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) did the Corporation the honour of becoming their high steward, they considered themselves under royal patronage, aud two gentlemen of the Prince's household represented them till the election of 1818. The number of voters was 1898 in 1837, and is now upwards of 2000. PRINCE ALBERT succeeded the late Duke of Sussex, as Lord High Steward of the Borough of Plymouth ; and Viscount Ebrington and Boundell Palmer, Esq., are its present MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT
MARKETS, FAIRS, &C.—A grant for a market and fair at Plymouth was first obtained in 1253, the former to be held on Thursdays, and the latter on the festival of St. John the Baptist. In 1257, Baldwin de L'Isle had a grant for another market at Sutton, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Ascension. Here are now markets every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, when a plentiful supply of every commodity may be obtained. The corn market, on Tuesday and Thursday, is well attended by the farmers and dealers residing within the distance of 15 or 20 miles. There is a great market, for cattle, etc., on the second Thursday of every month; and large fairs, for cattle, merchandise, and pleasure, are held on the first Mondays in April and November. The Market Place occupies three acres of ground, and has three entrances, from Cornwall street, East street, and Drake street It was built by the Corporation, about 1809, and affords ample room for meat, corn, fish, poultry, and vegetables, as well as for a considerable display of manufactured goods. It might have been made one of the handsomest market places in England, but the coup d’oeil is much injured by the irregularity of the structure. It is, however, very spacious and convenient, and has a division set apart for corn, and an area for moveable stalls, carts, etc. The cattle market is at the head of Tavistock street. At the fairs, part of the area is occupied by shows, etc. Races are held in Chelson Meadow, near Saltram; and during the year there are several Regattas and Bowing Matches in the harbours of the three towns.
The principal manufactures of the town are those of soap, sail cloth, Roman cement, rope, and twine. Here are also many ship building yards, several iron foundries, breweries, steam sawing mills, a sugar refinery, starch works, &c. Mr. Wm. Cookworthy, of Plymouth, was the first person who found out the materials for manufacturing porcelain, as now practised at Worcester. His original experiments were made at Plymouth, where a manufactory was for a while established, but it was not successful till its removal to Worcester, after repeated trials here and at Bristol. Here is still a pottery, where various kinds of earthenware are manufactured. The Mill Property belonging to the Corporation produces about £700, arising from the Higher and Lower Grist Mills; the Mills, &c., in Drake's place and Mill street; the Higher Malt Mill, and the Factory, in Russell street. There is a Flax Mill at Stone Park, and a large patent rope and cordage manufactory at Teats hill. Here are also a number of brush makers.
WATER AND GAS WORKS.—As already noticed, Plymouth is indebted to the skill and liberality of the great Sir Francis Drake, for the leat, or conduit (18 miles in length,) which has supplied the town with pure water for nearly three centuries. Formerly, the inhabitants had to fetch the water from a few fountains, in different parts of the town, or from the small reservoir at the head of Old Town street; but about 25 years ago, the Corporation greatly improved the works, by building a weir across the river Plym, at the head of the leat, in Dartmoor, and by conveying the water in iron pipes from three reservoirs to the houses in the principal streets. Further improvements were carried out some years afterwards; but the supply is still very deficient, and many of the streets are without water pipes. Measures are, however, in contemplation, for supplying all parts of the town, by extending the course of the leat, and by making large reservoirs at Sheepstor, Manadon, and Torr-House. From 1825 to 1833 the Corporation expended £20,816 in enlarging the water works ; and about £6000 in 1849 and '50. The water rents now yield about £3300 per annum. Oil Gas Works were established in Exeter street, under an act passed in the 4th of George IV.; but soon afterwards, the United General Gas Company of London constructed coal gas works at Mill Bay, for supplying the three towns. The high price charged by this company, while its monopoly existed, induced the inhabitants of Plymouth and Stonehouse to form a company for a cheaper supply, for which an act of parliament was obtained; and in a few years, the new company compelled the old one to sell them their works. New Gas Works were constructed at Coxide, in 1845, at the cost of £25,000, raised in £10 shares.
The EXCHANGE, in Woolster street, near the Custom House, was built in 1813, at the cost of £7000, raised in £25 shares. Until a few years ago, it was only partially occupied, and had a large open area, surrounded by a colonnade; but this area has recently been built upon, and covered with a glass dome, and offices have been built under the galleries. The building is now very spacious, and fully occupied. It comprises a very large room, for sales and public meetings; a News Room, 41 feet by 20 ; the Sail of Commerce ; and numerous mercantile and public offices. The Exchange Subscription Reading and News Room Association, was established in 1848, and has already about 200 members. The " change hour” is from twelve to one o'clock. The Steam Packet Companies have offices in the Exchange ; as also have the Fishermen's Mutual Insurance Society, established in 1844; the Port of Plymouth Ship Masters' Society, established in 1830; the Board for the Examination of Masters and Mates, instituted about four years ago, and to which Mr. R. W. Stevens is clerk; and the Trustees of the Merchant Seamen's Hospital Fund, to which every master of a vessel pays 2s., and the crew 1s. each per month, for their mutual relief in times of sickness and infirmity, and for the relief of the widows and children of such as have died in the service. This fund was instituted by an act of the reign of George II., establishing a Corporation in London, with authority to establish funds for this purpose at the outports. The Plymouth fund was commenced in 1752, and is vested in trust with 15 of the merchants and ship owners of the port. It has now £1500 three per cent, stock, and receives about £760 per annum in contributions. Mr. J. E. Blewett is the secretary.
As already noticed, the town has been much improved during the last ten years. The most recent alteration is the widening of Whimple street, at the western end of which stands the new POST OFFICE, a large and elegant building, erected by a company of shareholders in 1848, at the cost of £3000, from designs by Mr. O. C. Arthur, after the style of the Temple of Vesta, at Tivoli, in Italy. Some parts of it are let as offices; but the chief part is occupied as the Post-office and the post master's residence, and is rented by government for 75 years, at £100 per annum. The Branch Bank of England was removed from Exeter to Plymouth in 1834, and now occupies a large and handsome building, at George's place, erected in 1844. Here are also three other Banking Houses. The ROYAL HOTEL and THEATRE form an extensive and elegant fabric, which was finished in 1813, at the cost of about £60,000, partly supplied by the Corporation, and partly raised by way of tontine. The north front is 270 feet long, and has in the centre a magnificent portico of the Ionic order, under which are the entrances to the boxes, and to the great hull and staircase of the assembly looms. The Theatre is spacious and elegant; and the principal supports and framework of the boxes, and all the interior partitions, are of east iron, and the roof of wrought iron. The proscenium is formed by four beautiful marble columns, with gilt bases and capitals, supporting an elegant entablature, from which rises an arch richly empannelled. The Hotel, which lets for about £750 per annum, occupies all the eastern front, and has in the Centre an Ionic portico, corresponding in its proportions with the temple of Ilissus, a choice example of Grecian simplicity. Many of its apartments are spacious, and handsomely furnished ; and attached to it is on elegant suite of Assembly and Ball Rooms. In Union road is a large room, called the Central Hall, belonging to Mr. P. Fisher, and let for exhibitions, meetings, &c. It will hold 800 persons.
The ATHENAEUM is a chaste and classical structure, from designs by J. Foulston, Esq., the architect of the theatre. It is a fine example of the Grecian Doric order, and was built in 1818-'19, for the accommodation of the PLYMOUTH INSTITUTION, established in 1812, for the promotion of science, literature, and the fine arts. In the lecture room are many fine casts from ancient marbles, a colossal bust of Minerva, and other works of art; and the museum contains a large and interesting collection of minerals, fossils, preserved birds, shells, insects, curiosities, &c. There is here an occasional Exhibition of Paintings, formed partly by the works of Devonian artists, and partly from the collections of the nobility and gentry of the neighbourhood. Devonshire has given birth to many distinguished artists ; and Plymouth claims among its eminent pointers, Northcote, Prout, Haydon, Ball, and Bath. Among other Worthies of Plymouth may be enumerated Sir Thomas Edmondes, the ambassador and political writer; John Glanville, author of the well-known "Treatise on Witchcraft," and other works ; John Quick, an eminent non-conformist divine, author of the “History of the Reformation in France ;" Mrs, Parsons, authoress of above 60 volumes of novels ; Jacob Bryant, the learned mythologist; General Mudge, who conducted the first trigonometrical survey of the kingdom, under the auspices of Government; and his father, Dr. John Mudge, who was distinguished for his skill both in mathematics and medicine. Sir John Hawkins, who commanded the rear of the fleet which defeated the Spanish Armada, and ingloriously introduced the slave trade into the West Indies, was a native of Plymouth. In 1675, Charles Fitz-Charles, natural son of Charles II., was created Earl of Plymouth. He died without issue, and in 1682, the title was conferred on Thomas Hickman Windsor, the seventh Baron Windsor. It was held by the Windsor family till a few years ago, when the eighth and last Earl of Plymouth died without male heirs. Four Newspapers ore published here weekly; and in the town are several News Rooms and Libraries. The PUBLIC LIBRARY, established at the Guildhall, about the beginning of the present century, occupies a handsome building, in Cornwall street, erected in 1811-'12, and comprising a large and well supplied news-room. There being no windows in the front, the various apartments are lighted by glazed domes, or cupolas, in the roof. The library comprises about 8000 volumes, arranged in a spacious vaulted room, surrounded by a light gallery. The MECHANICS' INSTITUTION, for which a commodious building is about to be erected, was commenced in 1826, and occupies a building in Princess square. It has an extensive library, and numerous list of members. The Royal Devon and Cornwall Botanical and Horticultural Society holds two exhibitions yearly, at the assembly rooms of the Royal Hotel, and Mr. N. J. Easton is its secretary. There is a Natural History Society, at 16, Princess square; and a Young Men's Christian Association, in Bedford street. Here is also a Branch Diocesan Architectural Society, and some other institutions for the promotion of literature and the arts and sciences. The ROYAL UNION BATHS, in Union road, occupy a spacious building, and were founded in 1828, by a company of shareholders They are daily supplied with pure sea water from the Sound, conveyed in iron pipes to a reservoir, which holds 2700 hogsheads. Baths of every description may be had here, including warm, tepid, vapour, sulphur, hot air, slipper, plunge, shower, douche, and swimming baths. Here is also the VICTORIA SPA, which is obtained from a boring in the Artesian manner, 360 feet deep. A comparison of this spa with sea water, from which it is supposed to be derived, by infiltration through the rocks, shows that, while it has lost bromine, iodine, and their acids, it has acquired sulphate of lime, and carbonates of lime and iron, and that it has, in consequence, become equivalent to the saline chalybeates of Cheltenham and Tunbridge.
CHURCHES, &c.—As already noticed, Plymouth was anciently called! Sutton, and was a prebendal parish attached to the collegiate church of .Plympton till that church was converted into a priory, when Sutton was appropriated to it. After the Reformation, the great tithes of Plymouth, with the advowson of the vicarage, were vested with the Corporation, but since the Municipal Reform, they have sold the patronage of both vicarages. In 1640, the borough was divided into two parishes by act of parliament, but the new parish church was not completed till after the restoration, when it was dedicated to the memory of Charles I. The population of the two parishes of St. Andrew and Charles the Martyr, is already stated, where it will be seen that they have two out-townships, beyond the limits of the borough. In monastic times, here were several religious houses, but nothing is known relating to their foundation or history. The Franciscans or Grey Friars are supposed to have had small monasteries in Palace Court, and on the site of the Distillery in Southside street, where there are some interesting remains of ancient architecture. The White Friary is supposed to have been in Friary court, the principal entrance to which is through an antique dilapidated gateway. A Cistertian Abbey gave name to Abbey street, and its remains may be traced in the large building, called the Abbey Wine Vaults, which still retains much of its original ecclesiastical character. The White Friary was licensed by Bishop Stapledon in 1324, at the desire of Edward II., and was granted at the dissolution to Giles Iselham. St. Andrew's Parish Church. is a spacious and venerable structure, which is mentioned in a survey made in 1291, but was evidently mostly rebuilt in the 15th century. It has been thoroughly renovated and much improved since 1824, and has now 2500 sittings, of which 1000 are free. It is chiefly in the perpendicular or early English style, and consists of a spacious nave, chancel, and sides aisles, two small transepts, and a fine lofty tower, which contains a peal of eight deep toned bells, and was built about 1440, by a merchant of Plymouth, named Yogge. The weight of the tenor bell is 2 ½ tons, and the tower is surmounted at each angle by handsome and lofty pinnacles. The church being in a very dilapidated state, the parishioners in 1824 determined on its restoration, at the cost of £3000, part of which was borrowed from the Exchequer Loan Commissioners, to be repaid by annual payments of £150. The improvements were continued at intervals, and church rates were annually levied till 1834, when Mr. F. Bone became churchwarden. In 1839, Mr. Bone (without the aid of church rates) having succeeded in completing most of the intended renovations, and also in liquidating the debt, was presented by the parishioners with a valuable service of plate. The interior is divided by clustered columns and pointed arches, and has now a handsome appearance. Much elegance is displayed in the design and ornaments of the pulpit and reading desk, which, like the pews and seats, are of oak. The unsightly galleries in the aisles were removed, and new ones were erected in the transepts, and at the west end. The beautiful oak roof, with its finely carved bosses, was thoroughly cleansed and restored, and a noble stair-case of teak wood was constructed in the lower story of the tower to communicate with the galleries and the organ loft. The organ is very powerful, and was purchased by subscription in 1735. Saml. Addis, in 1741, gave £400, to be invested in the funds, for the benefit of the organist. The three east windows have been enriched with stained glass, and a handsome altar screen has been erected since 1841. The western windows in the aisles are about to be replaced by new ones, and the north porch is to be rebuilt. The great defect in this extensive church is the want of a clerestory. Its situation was formerly too closely confined by a number of old houses, which belonged mostly to the vicarage, and have lately been removed for the improvement of this central part of the town. In the aisles are many neat mural monuments, on one of which is a fine bust of the Rev, Zachary Mudge, a late vicar, who died in 1789, and was the author of a volume of sermons. Another monument is in memory of Dr. Wm. Woollcombe, an eminent physician, who died in 1822. The principal group represents the genius of medicine supporting indigence. In the north aisle is another monument, on which religion, personified by a female figure rests upon a medallion bust of the Rev. John Gandy, M.A., a prebendiry of Exeter, who died in 1824, aged 85 years, during 55 years of which beheld this vicarage, besides previously officiatiug here five years as curate, His memorial was erected by public subscription, in record of the many virtues of the late venerable vicar. Here is also a tablet in memory of the lab celebrated comedian, Charles Mathews, who was born in 1776, and died in 1835. The vicarage, valued in K.B. at £12. 5s. 5d., and in 1831 at £92.. is in the patronage of the Rev. E. Holland, and incumbency of the Rev John Hatchard, M.A., who derives his income partly from fees and vicarial property, and partly from the small tithes, which have been commuted for the following yearly sums :—£153 from St. Andrew's, £350 from Pennycross, and £65 from Compton Gilford. The vicar of Charles has £525 a year in lieu of tithes, of which he derives £160 from Compton Clifford The great tithes belong to the land owners, except a few small houses. The Reverends C. A. Marrett and C T. C. Trelawny are th« curates, and Mr. W. P. H. White is the clerk. The PARISH CHURCH OF KING CHARLES THE MARTYR is a large fabric, of mixed architecture, in the eastern part of the town, and was erected under the powers of an act of parliament passed in 1640, but owing to the troubles of the civil wars, it was not completed till 1658, nor consecrated till the Restoration. It consists of a spacious nave, with north and south aisles, a chancel, and a tower, crowned by a spire, which was struck by lightning, and mostly rebuilt about 25 years ago. There are eight bells in the tower, but two of them are broken. The interior of the church has a neat appearance, and contains about 1700 sittings. A new organ, by Beavington and Son, has recently been erected in the east gallery. Here are several handsome monuments, one of which has a finely sculptured bust of the Rev. R. Hawker, D.D., the late vicar, who died in 1846. The vicarage, valued in 1831 at £612 per annum, was in the patronage of the late Sir C. Bisshopp, Bart. The Rev. H. A. Greaves, M.A., is the incumbent. The parish of Charles comprises a great part of the town, the village of Lipson, and the tithing or chapelry of Compton Gifford. St. ANDREW'S CHAPEL, in Lockyer street, is an elegant chapel of ease to St. Andrew's parish, and was erected in 1822-3, at the cost of £5000, mostly contributed by the Rev. R. Lampen, (the first incumbent,) and H. Woolcombe, J. Pridham, and Thos. Gill, Esqrs. The front is composed of large blocks of granite, in the Grecian style, with a cupola and bell on the top. The interior has about 1100 sittings, and is handsomely fitted up. It has galleries and a good organ, and many of the pews are private property. The benefice is a perpetual curacy, valued in 1831 at £115, and now in the patronage of the vicar of St Andrew's, and incumbency of the Rev. G. Hadow, M.A. CHARLES' CHAPEL, in Tavistock place, was built by subscription in 1828, as a chapel of ease to the parish of Charles, and has upwards of 1500 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued in 1831 at £109, and is in the patronage of Trustees, and incumbency of the Rev. W. Hawker. To supply that great want of church room which has long been felt in Plymouth, large portions of the town and two parishes have lately been divided by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners into the five DISTRICT PARISHES and perpetual curacies of Trinity, Christ Church, St. Peter, St. James, and Sutton-upon-Plym, but churches for all of them have not yet been provided. TRINITY CHURCH, in Southside street, is a substantial structure, in the Doric style, erected in 1841-2, by subscription and a grant from the Incorporated Society. It has 1082 sittings, of which 630 are free. The Rev. H. C. Smith is the incumbent, and the vicar of St. Andrew's is the patron. CHRIST CHURCH is a handsome structure, in Oxford street, and was built in 1845-6. It is in the perpendicular style, and has 1080 sittings, of which 536 are free. The vicar of St. Andrew's is patron, and the Rev. R. Malone, M.A., is the incumbent. ST. PETER'S CHURCH was formerly Eldad Chapel, which was built in 1830, for the late Rev. Jno. Hawker, B.A., but was never consecrated. It was licensed by the Bishop as St. Peter's Church in 1848, and was altered and improved in that and the following year. The patronage is in the Crown and Bishop alternately, and the Rev. G. R. Prynne, B.A., is the incumbent. The District Parishes of St. James and Sutton-upon-Plym are in the same patronage, and the former is in the incumbency of the Rev. G. S. Hookey, and the latter of the Rev. G. Carrighan. Churches have not yet been erected for them, but they preach in licensed rooms, the former at the Union Baths, and the latter at Catdown. Portland Chapel is a sort of free evangelical church, which was built in 1844 by its minister, the Rev. James Babb, M.A., with a house for his own residence. He only retains a life interest in the chapel and house, which he has vested with 13 trustees for the future endowment of the " Poor Saints Relief Fund," established six years ago, for the relief of poor and pious applicants. This fund is intended as the successor to that of the Corpus Christi Society, which was founded in 1790 by Dr. Hawker, a late vicar of Charles, but is now obsolete.

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