WIVENHOE, ALRESFORD, AND THORRINGTON
Pigot's Essex 1832-3 Trade Directory
WIVENHOE, is a village and parish in the Colchester division of Lexden hundred, four miles south-east from Colchester, and about nine from Manningtree. It is agreeably situated on the acclivity and summit of a pleasant eminence, on the north side of the Colne, and is reckoned the harbour of Colchester for larger vessels than come up to that town; and is where large quantities of oysters are packed for exportation. It is, however, but a place of little trade when divested of its oyster fishery, and connexion and communication with its populous neighbour Colchester. The church is a large and rather handsome edifice: the living is in the gift of Nicholas Corsellis, Esq. the lord of the manor. The number of inhabitants in the parish, by the last census, was 1714.
ALRESFORD or ASHFORD, is a small village and parish in the hundred of Tendring, 2 miles south-east of Wivenhoe, containing 297 inhabitants.
THORRINGTON is 2 miles south-east from Alresford, in the same hundred, and 8 miles from Colchester. It is a village and parish, with a population, by the last returns, of 431 inhabitants.
POST OFFICE, WIVENHOE, James Pratt, Post Master. - Letters from London arrive (per mail cart) from COLCHESTER, every morning at half-past eight, and are despatched every evening at half-past six.
CARRIERS. To LONDON, Cridge & Felbrook, from Wivenhoe, every morning.
CONVEYANCE BY WATER. To LONDON, GAINSBOROUGH, and HULL, vessels, from the Quay, weekly, and occasionally oftener.
Transcribed by CG
White's History, Gazetteer & Directory of Essex ~ 1848
Submitted and Transcribed by Essex Villages
WIVENHOE, a large and respectable village, 3 miles S.S.E.
of Colchester, is seated on a picturesque acclivity, on the north-east side of
the Colne, at the point where that navigable river begins to expand into a broad
estuary, of which the higher parts of the village command a fine prospect, down
to Mersea Island. With Rowhedge, on the opposite of the river, and Brightlingsea,
a few miles below, it forms, in matters of pilotage, &c., a member of the Cinque
Port of Sandwich, in Kent. It is within the jurisdiction of the Custom House
establishment at Colchester, and may be called the shipping port of that town,
as 'colliers' and other large vessels here receive and discharge their cargo's
by means of lighters. A constant and extensive fishing trade is carried on here,
especially in oysters and soles, which are considered the best in the kingdom.
Great numbers of dredging boats employed in the oyster trade are built here.
A fair is held here on the 4th of September and four following days, for pedlery, toys, &c.; and on the river is a good quay. The parish of Wivenhoe is at the south-east angle of Lexden Hundred, and contains 1599 inhabitants, and about 1500 acres of land, rising boldly from the low marshes near the river, and having in the higher parts a sandy soil, but fertile and well cultivated. It has been variously called Wyneho, Wyfenho, and Wyvenhoo, and was held by Robert Gernon at the Domesday Survey, as part of his barony of Stanstead Mountfichet. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it was held by the de Vere family, Earls of Oxford, one of whom made the commodious road from the heath into the village. The manor of Wivenhoe was sold by the 17th Earl in 1585, to Roger Townshend, Esq., and it was sold by his family, in 1657, to Nicholas Corsellis, an ancestor of Nicholas Ceasar Corsellis, Esq., the present owner, whose family was long seated at Wivenhoe Hall, which is now occupied by Stephen Brown, Esq. The Corsellis family came from Roussilier, in Flanders, and one of them, Frederic Corsellis, is said to have been the first person who introduced the art of printing into this country. The lord has exclusive right of a ferry to Fingringhoe, and derives £14. 6s. 2d. yearly in quit rents from the manor; as well as a common fine of 11s. 8d., paid at the court leet. The Hall is a fine old mansion, with pleasant grounds, on the north-west side of the village. When held by the Earls of Oxford, it had a fine tower gateway, of considerable height, which served as a sea mark. The parish is mostly freehold, and a great portion of the soil belongs to Henry J. Corsellis, J. G. Rebow, Esq., Philip Havens, Esq., and several smaller proprietors. The latter has a neat residence in the village, near which is Wivenhoe House, the handsome modern residence of Wm. Brummell, Esq.
Wivenhoe Park, the delightful seat of John Gurdon Rebow, Esq., is partly in this and partly in Greenstead parish, but the mansion, which is large and handsome, stands within the bounds of Wivenhoe, about two miles S. W. of Colchester, where the Rebow family were formerly settled as merchants and woollen manufacturers. The park is extensive, richly clothed with wood, and embellished with a fine sheet of water, and a stock of deer. It occupies an estate anciently belonging to the Beriff family, and was converted into an elegant seat by Isaac Martin Rebow, Esq., about 1740. Both it and the mansion were much improved by the late Lieut-General Fras. Slater Rebow, who, like his successor, was an active magistrate of the county. A large house in the village was the seat of Matthew Martin, Esq., a celebrated captain in the East India Company's service, who was one of the representatives of Colchester in the second parliaments of George l. and ll., and died in 1749.
The Church (Virgin Mary) is a large gothic structure, with a nave and aisles, a chancel, and a square embattled tower, containing five bells. The interior is neatly fitted up, and had formerly a chantry, founded in 1413, in a small chapel, dedicated to St. John the Baptist. On the walls are several neat marble tablets, and on the floor is a fine antique brass, on which are portrayed effigies of Lord Wm. Beaumont and his lady.
The rectory valued in K.B. at £10, and in 1831 at £380, is in the patronage of N. C. Corsellis, Esq., and incumbency of the Rev. Edw. Thos. Waters, M.A., who has a good residence, and a yearly rent-charge of £413, in lieu of tithes. In the village is an independent Chapel, belonging to a congregation formed in 1790, and now under the ministry of the Rev. S. Hubbard, of Colchester. Day and Sunday Schools are attached to the church and the chapel, and are liberally supported by subscription. The National School was built by Mr John Sanford.
Jonathan Feedham left £50 to be invested, and the yearly proceeds to be distributed amongst poor sailors, or sailors widows, belonging to this parish. In 1803, this £50 was given to the lord of the manor, in exchange for 3a, of waste land, now let for £6 per ann. The poor widows of the parish have a yearly rent-charge of £2, left by one cow, out of a garden of four acres. Ten poor parishioners, attending the church, have a yearly rent-charge of 50s., left by Wm. Sanford, in 1829, out of a farm at Fingringhoe, now belonging to Mr. T. Sanford.
Abbott Abraham, carpenter, &c.
Allum Edw. gamekpr. to S. Brown, Esq
Barrs John, fishmonger, & Mr Fras.
Barrell Daniel, wheelwright
Bryant John, British schoolmr
Brown Stephen, Esq. Wivenhoe Hall (and silk throwster, Colchester)
Browne Wm. rope maker
Brummell Wm. Esq, Wivenhoe Hs.
Chamberlain John Green, agent for Sandwich Cinque Port
Chamberlain George, shoemaker
Church Wm. bricklayer
Coney Wm. cooper
Death John, coal meter
Elsworthy Wm, block maker
Firman Hy. Jph. colr. & manor bailiff
Frost Anthony, brewer
Harvey Nathl. coal & oyster mercht
Harvey Thos. ship and boat builder
Havens Philip, Esq. mercht.(& East Donyland Hall)
Havens Philip, jun., surgeon
Hellen James, master mariner
Howard Thomas, parish clerk
Jolliffe Wm. gardener, & c.
Martin Edw. master, royal navy
Noble Wm. master mariner
Pratt Miss Sarah, post mistress
Rebow Jno. Gurdon, Esq. Wivenhoe Pk
Ronayne Wm. tide surveyor, &c.
Rudd Wm. schoolmaster
Sanford Thomas and John, gent
Sargeant Miss, schoolmistress
Smith John, corn miller
Temple John, chemist & druggist
Waters Rev. Edw. Thos. M.A. Rectory
Inns & Taverns
Anchor, Chas. Heath, (oyster mert)
Black Boy, Isaac Blyth, (plumber, &c)
Falcon, Wm. Fisher
Flag, George Philbrick
Greyhound, John Powell
Horse & Groom, Wm. Schofield
Rose & Crown, Dd. Durrell, (sail mkr)
Ship Launch, George Chamberlain
Ashford Hy. Ldge.
Grocers &c. (+ Drapers also)
Jones Wm. (and ferryman)
+ Moore James
+ Smith John, (& maltster)
+ Tabrum & Parkes
Ship and Smack Owners
Chamberlain J. G
Goodwin Samuel (& sail mkr)
Heath Mrs W. (& oyster dealer)
Pratt John, (and coal merchant)
Post to and from Colchester daily
The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales...., by John Marius Wilson. circa 1866
ALRESFORD, a parish in Tendring district, Essex; on Colne river, 5 miles SE of Colchester. It has a post-office under Colchester. Acres, 1,583; of which 75 are water. Real property, £2,185. Pop., 248. Houses, 62. The property is divided among a few. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £378. Patrons, Hulme's Trustees. The church is good.
Transcribed by Noel Clark
KELLY'S DIRECTORY OF ESSEX 1933
ALRESFORD is an ancient village and a parish on high table land, on the road from Colchester to St. Osyth, and is bounded on the west by the Colne, and on the south by a creek running up from the river Colne, fordable at low water, with a station on the Colchester and Tendring Hundred branch of the London and North Eastern railway, is 6 miles south-east from Colchester and 59 from London, in the Harwich division of the county, rural district, petty sessional division and hundred of Tendring, Colchester, Clacton and Halstead joint county court district, rural deanery of St. Osyth, archdeaconry of Colchester and Chelmsford diocese. The church of St. Peter is a well proportioned building of stone, erected by Anfrid or Anfrey de Staunton, about the year 1300, as did appear by his epitaph in Norman-French in the chancel, now concealed by the flooring of the chancel seats: it consists of chancel, nave of two bays, south aisle, north porch and a low western belfry with shingled spire containing one bell: the east window, the gift of the Rev. Charles Collwyn Prichard and a few friends and the work of Messrs. Morris and Co. was inserted in memory of those who fell in the Great War, especially Lieutenants Rowland Prichard and Giles Prichard: those in the south aisle were provided by the late W. W. Hawkins esq.: a new organ has been installed, the gift of the Rev. F. W. Bussell D.D. there are several hatchments, including that of Captain Martin, who purchased the Alresford estate in 1720; he commanded an East India Co.s vessel and distinguished himself by defeating the attack of a French line of battle, ship; an oval medal bearing the arms of the East India Co. appears on his hatchment: there are 165 sittings. The register dates from the year 1742. The living is a rectory, net yearly value £333, with residence, in the gift of Hulmes trustees, and held since 1933 by the Rev. Clement James Edwards M.A. of Jesus College, Oxford. A legacy of £100, left by Lieuts. Giles and Rowland Prichard for church purposes, has been invested in the War Loan, and the interest is paid half yearly to the churchwardens. A rent-charge of 12s. 8d. on the Milch Pightle field was left in 1538 by Edmund Porter for the relief of the poor. Alresford Hall stands in a commanding position, surrounded by fine woods, about half a mile from the church, and is the seat of Guy F. Cobbold esq. who is the principal landowner. Major E. Francis Hutchinson is lord of the manor. The soil is a light sandy loam on a gravelly subsoil. The chief crops are wheat, barley and oats and market garden produce. The area is 1,434 acres of land, chiefly arable, 2 of inland and 12 of tidal water and 82 of foreshore; the population in 1931 was 312.
Post, T. & T. E. D. Office (available for calls to places within a limited distance). Letters from Colchester. Thorrington nearest M. O. office
Railway Station (L. & N. E)
Carriers & Omnibuses pass through to Colchester from Brightlingsea daily